Biotechnology is a set of methods and techniques using genetic and physiological capabilities of living organisms to develop new products.

Biotechnology progress
integrate several disciplines such as microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology and computing, and generate a variety of tools to disrupt multiple industries and to modify the environment.

Biotechnology Applications
Pharmaceutical Research (Health)
Health is the first application of biotechnology. They bring new life to the entire pharmaceutical research. Because many drugs are created through a better understanding of micro-organisms and study of DNA, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals can not happen from one another.

Some infectious diseases have been controlled since the 1940s by antibiotics, partially or wholly obtained by fermentation and vaccines through genetic engineering.

Polymerase Chain Reaction
New diagnostic biotechnology emerged in the years 1980-1990: the technique of molecular probes and the polymerase chain reaction. In a sequence to combine with inherited their complements, these probes may indicate the presence of a defective gene or a gene intruder, due to an invasion of microbes in the body. Similarly, antibodies are able to identify with precision the non-compliant cells (cancerous) or foreign to the body such as bacteria. Thus was born the industry kits for rapid diagnosis based on the use of antibodies. In the case of pregnancy tests, which detect the presence of a specific hormone of the fetus in the urine of women.

Sequencing of Human Genone (Proteomics / Genomics)
The sequencing of the human genome heralds a new era in pharmaceutical research. Of more effective drugs can now be considered as the knowledge of the genome offers the possibility of targeting one or a few genes directly associated with a disease. Proteomics takes over from genomics to determine the role of proteins produced by each gene.

Gene Therapy
Some conditions are related to an anomaly or a lack of synthesis in the body of one or more molecules, as in cases of diabetes or hemophilia. It is now possible to produce large quantities of therapeutic substances similar to those produced by the body through bacteria, yeasts, insect cells or genetically altered mammals that are then injected in the patient. You can also transfer the gene responsible for production of the active molecule missing the individual in need is gene therapy.

Agriculture and Agri-Food (Plant Biotechnology)
The second major application of biotechnology is the agricultural research in which there are three application fields: agriculture, food and environment. Of transgenic varieties (GMOs) are created to increase resistance to pests and diseases or to improve the nutritional quality of products. Many plant varieties are being tested such as those owned by naturally secrete their own insecticides or genes controlling the quality of growth and conservation. When all the genes involved will be identified, transgenic plants may be resistant to cold, frost, drought and salty soil.

Transgenic Animals (Animal Biotechnology)
Transgenic animals in which genetic heritages have been introduced one or more foreign genes, are employed in research laboratories for studying the mechanisms of genesis of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diseases of bacterial or viral.


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