This article reports the effects of endometriomas and infertility treatments on their out-come mainly in cases of in vitro fertilization.
The main conclusions are: the absence of any deleterious effects on IVF results in cases of endometriomas, the conservation of the stock oocytes in the ovary after any type of surgery for ovarian endometriomas (Cystectomy or more drainage laser vaporization), the poor out-come of iterative surgical approach of endometriomas, the risk of ovarian abscess after puncture during an IVF procedure.
The presence of endometriomas in the course of a cycle of in vitro fertilization (IVF) raises several concerns among practitioners
- The risk of poor ovarian response,
- The low chance of pregnancy,
- The risk of an "outbreak" of the endometriomas by hormonal stimulation, and
- The risk of infection after follicular puncture.
On the other hand, surgery for endometriomas has often been accused of being "destructive" for the ovarian reserve.
Endometriotic Lesions - Endoscopic Image
Endometriosis Human Ovary
Endometriomas AND RISKS OF IVF
Most of the fears reported in the introduction are quite imaginary. Indeed, no cases have been reported endometriosis cyst rupture after IVF or any outbreak of endometriosis or endometriomas after ovarian stimulation. Only one case of endometriosis cyst rupture during pregnancy IVF is found in the literature.
However, there are a dozen publications reporting cases of infection of endometriomas. Team Clermont-Ferrand reported a case of bilateral endometriomas abscess in early pregnancy with birth of twins. This case (unpublished) was instructive in many respects.
1.The germ of 2 identical sides, which proves that the good seed punctures IVF follicles and, despite aseptic precautions and antibiotic prophylaxis, as the authors emphasize.
2. Drainage percoelioscopique these endometriomas proved as ineffective in many publications.
3. This is a vaginal drainage that resulted in the healing of the patient.
4. Nevertheless, the pregnancy continued.
Thus, it is necessary to avoid a drain on endometriomas during IVF to avoid the risk of abcedation. This is not to drain through a endometriomas is not always easy or even feasible. The antibiotic appears to be ineffective.
IMPACT OF SURGERY ON endometriomas ovarian response in IVF
As we have seen, there is no scientific evidence that proves the need for the endometriomas to improve the outcome of IVF.
In contrast, the surgical treatment of endometriomas can achieve spontaneous pregnancy in many cases, but it has also been accused of having a negative impact on ovarian reserve and thereby to risk compromising the chances of IVF.
Our conclusion were made in the form of FAQ:
Should we make the endometriomas before IVF?
1. Yes, because the intervention results in spontaneous pregnancies and surgery and not well made does not iterative any future IVF.
2. No, if one considers that the surgery has been very fortunate to achieve a pregnancy and that IVF is indicated. This is particularly the case of recurrence or in the case of endometriosis ultrasound and clinically very severe.
Should reoperer a recurrent endometriomas before switching to IVF?
1. No, because this will not impact either positive or negative effect on IVF.
2. Similarly, the discovery of a endometriomas during stimulation for IVF is not an indication to stop IVF.
3. However, if very large endometriomas, drainage preventif could facilitate the puncture. The best technique is the drainage under ultrasound.
Which surgical technique should be used?
1. Finally, there is no big difference between the drainage and kystectomie LASER vaporization with respect to the alteration of the oocyte stock.
2. The first is the more accessible material and appears to have a lower recidivism rate.
3. However, all endometriosis cysts are not readily clivables and in this case, the technique of coagulation drainage is preferable.
Should drains an endometriomas during IVF puncture?
1. No, because this is not enough to make and increase the risk of abcedation.
2. Yes, it is with pain, but with caution and under antibiotic coverage.
Can we drain follicles by passing through a endometriomas?
1. Clearly, it is best to avoid in order not to risk a abcedation.
2. However, this complication is not frequent and if it is sometimes impossible to do otherwise. The presence of liquid chocolate in the sample did not affect the outcome of IVF when the oocytes were treated immediately by the biologist.
What is the best treatment for endometriomas on ovarian abscess after oocyte aspiration?
1. The drainage vaginally, if possible, is the technique most effective and least aggressive.
2. The approach coelioscopique is a second-best, because there is often a pelvic armor that makes the start of the ovary very difficult.