"Cloning means producing a cell or group of genetically identical individuals from a single cell." All clones have the same genetic heritage. Most single-celled organisms, many plants and some multicellular animals reproduce by cloning (asexual reproduction). In humans, identical twins are clones, because they develop after the separation of the first cells formed from a single fertilized ovum.

Cloning is not strictly speaking part of genetic engineering since the genome normally remains unchanged, but it is a practical method for multiplying organisms created by genetic manipulation.

Alta Genetics, Calgary, is a world leader in genetic engineering of livestock. This company uses artificial polyembryonnie combined with in vitro fertilization and embryo transplantation. The manipulation of plant hormones in plant cells in culture can produce clones, namely the millions of seedlings that can be the seed artificial.

The cloning of animals produced by genetic engineering techniques is usually difficult. It has produced clones of frogs by transplanting several eggs without nuclei identical core taken from a single embryo. This technique does not apply to mammals. It can be used with cells cloned from very young embryos of mammals (embryonic stem cells) for reconstructing whole animals. It relies heavily on this technique to produce genetically engineered mice. There is no known example of human cloning by artificial means, which does not preclude people from claiming the regulations frequently on human cloning and genetic engineering, for the same reasons why most commentators to reject eugenics.

Gene Cloning
This type of cloning is a fundamental component of genetic engineering. A segment of DNA from any donor in vitro is combined with another molecule of DNA, called a vector, to form a DNA molecule "recombinant".

The design of suitable vectors is an important branch practice of genetic engineering. The insertion of DNA requires the mediation of different vectors according to the type of cell. Mammalian vectors usually come from mammalian viruses.

The cloning of genes in microbes has reached the stage of commercial applications, including one of the most remarkable is the marketing of human INSULINE produced by bacteria. You can now purchase many products such as growth hormones, clotting factors and blood interferon antiviral. The cloning of genes has revolutionized our knowledge of genes, cells and diseases, especially of CANCER. In addition the diagnosis of hereditary diseases in the highest scientific level and provided us with accurate diagnostic tools for infectious diseases, it is essential for DNA testing that is in the forensic medicine.


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