Interspecies Gene Transfer
This transfer occurs in nature. Interspecies hybrids from sexual reproduction can lead to the emergence of new species have the genetic characteristics of two species of departure. Interspecies hybridization has played an important role in the selection of crops. We can also produce interspecies hybrids between sexually incompatible species. You can merge cells of plants and animals to produce hybrid cell lines viable. As hybrids of plant cell culture can, by regeneration, producing whole plants, cell fusion allows crosses between sexually incompatible species. Most animal cells can not regenerate to restore complete specimens, but the fusion of antibody producing cells (difficult to cultivate) and cells "transformed" gives rise to immortal cell lines, each producing a particular antibody, called monoclonal antibodies. These cell lines can be used for commercial manufacturing of diagnostic products and antibodies used in the treatment of diseases. They play an major role in research on human heredity character and diseases.

In nature, gene transfer between sexually incompatible species also occurs. Thus, genes can be transported from one species to another during a viral infection. In its narrowest sense, genetic engineering exploits the possibility of such transfers between species that are not related.

There are two main methods:
In the first, it implements the genes from one organism to another so that they operate in the host.

In the second, the new host (usually a microorganism) produces a certain amount of the segment of DNA that contains the foreign gene, we can analyze and modify test-tube before returning to the case where the gene is derived. (changing the structure of the gene is carried by a technique known as invitro mutagenesis)

This sustained progress of modern genetic engineering is based on a number of important technical breakthroughs such as:

  • Cloning,
  • Gene Cloning and
  • DNA Sequencing.


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