Life appeared on Earth there are 3.5 million years. Primitive organic molecules were transferred into organic molecules, with a favourable composition of atmospheric gases. They then evolved into cells, organism’s basic living world. Therefore, living beings have been born through protein synthesis, carried out by RNA enzymes, and multicellular organization, permitted by the system of duplication.

The life of a person, animal or plant, is punctuated by inevitable stages during its formation and its existence. It starts with fertilization, natural process made possible by the encounter of a male gamete and a female gamete. The embryo thus formed grows, and becomes a fetus as it grows. At birth, he takes his status of being alive and going through new phases: childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age and death. Sociologists have also developed theories based on different life stages of an individual to describe his lifestyle and needs. Furthermore, the concept of life is very important in philosophy and in certain religious principles, so that its interruption by death remains a taboo in our society.

Biologically, life is defined by the presence in an individual function to its growth, motility, reproduction, but also metabolism, consumption and transformation of energy and a spontaneous response to external stimuli. The life support resides in cell division. There are indeed in a cell, the genetic material that encodes the different characteristics of a living being. It is carried by genes, arranged on chromosomes, consisting of DNA.

Actions that govern human life have been studied by scientists seeking to understand and reproduce the behaviour. Thus, the first artificial living beings were created in the 40s, and are in fact robots capable of performing mechanical actions. The robots first appeared shortly after and the concepts of artificial intelligence with them, since the best machines have programs that allow them to chain movements and react to certain environmental changes.

Moreover, researchers have identified the process of formation of life. They are now able to create beings perfectly viable, similar to natural individuals. Cloning techniques have been implemented. They are based on very sophisticated biological techniques, which use the genetic material of a cell, which can be modified to give birth to an individual with characteristics chosen. These processes are still exposed by ethics, since they constitute a challenge to the spontaneity of nature and the random creation of living beings.


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